Stylized Depiction in Computer
Non-Photorealistic, Painterly and 'Toon Rendering
an annotated survey of online resources
by Craig Reynolds
International Symposium on
Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering
June 7-9, 2004 in Annecy, France
Paper submission deadline: October 23, 2003
While I have not done research in this area myself, I am fascinated
computer graphic technique known as non-photorealistic rendering.
(Admittedly it is a little odd to name a field of study by what it is
Stanislaw Ulam apparently once remarked: "The study of non-linear
physics is like the study of non-elephant biology.") My
links on this topic began to outgrow its place on my bookmarks list, so
created this page to give them a home, and perhaps to help other people
interested in the field.
To better describe the kinds of techniques listed here, and to
informal taxonomy used on this page, it is helpful to note that
for stylized depiction can be classified along the axis from
fully automatic, and that there are three distinct types of input for
stylized depiction processes:
- 3D scenes (described in terms of geometry, color,
- images for processing
- brushstrokes from a user (like the input to a paint
In computer graphics, photorealistic rendering attempts to
artificial images of simulated 3d environments that look "just like the
world." So non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) is any technique that
images of simulated 3d world in a style other than realism.
these styles are reminiscent of paintings (painterly rendering),
various other styles of artistic illustration (sketch, pen and ink,
lithograph, ...) Of particular commercial interest are techniques that
render 3d scenes in styles which match the "look" of traditionally
films. Often called 'toon shading, these techniques allow for
seamless combination of 3d elements with traditional cel animation.
Another important application of non-photorealistic rendering is to
the user understand that a depiction is only approximate.
photorealistic rendering seems to imply an exactness and perfection
overstate the fidelity of the simulated scene to a real object. The Piranesi system
(mentioned below) has proved more useful than photorealistic rendering
application that pre-visualizes kitchen remodeling.
Teddy modeler (see below) uses a sketchy rendering style to suggest
approximate 3D shapes it has inferred from the user's 2d drawing.
Also listed here are some image processing techniques which
transform an image into a style that suggests a painting or other
styles. The images can be photographic or from any other source. Some
the techniques have the ability to process a series of images, as from
video or film camera, and to produce a stylized image that remains
from frame to frame, allowing the creation of something like an
This page also includes: (1) some computational techniques that
simulate traditional artistic media such as watercolor and ink
some references to work on non-traditional perspective common
traditional illustration but rare in computer graphics, (3) techniques
finding and using silhouettes of 3D objects, (4) non-realistic
designed for real time or interactive rates, and (5) non-traditional
Finally it should be noted that any claim that an automatic process
produce "art" or a "painting" should be regarded as suspect. Making
art is a creative and thoughtful process. It may even be
uniquely human. The possibility of artificial creativity, let
artificial intelligence, are open research questions. None of
techniques described here are candidates for true artificial
have tried to use neutral language ("...suggests a
style...") on this page to skirt the distinction between art
and procedural techniques for stylized depiction.
(Note: items marked [new] have been
added in the three months prior to the time of the "last update"
indicated at the bottom of this page.)
Rendering for Animation (1996, PDF 0.26MB, abstract)
by Barbara J. Meier.
(See also this student project based on Meier's
Painterly Approach by Wasinee
Rungsarityotin and Victor Zordan
at Georgia Tech.)
Rendering from 3D by Remco
Chang, Markus Meister
and Caroline Dahllof
Watercolor (1997) by Cassidy Curtis,
Josh Seims, Kurt Fleischer
and David Salesin.
the Parameter Space of a Ray-Traced Painterly Renderer (1997) by Jon Levene and David Weitzberg.
Painting (1998) by Ergun
procedurally drives "brushes" around implicitly defined surfaces,
either a trace of color or a tooth-paste-like extrusion of material.
Canvas: Integrating 3-D Painting and Painterly Rendering (2000) by
George Katanics and Tasso Lappas (at the
Disney Tech site) describes the technique first used in Disney's
See also: a one page SIGGRAPH 1999 sketch
Deep canvas in Disney's Tarzan (1999) by Eric Daniels, this Interview
with Eric Daniels, CG Artistic Supervisor, "Tarzan" (1999) by
in VFXPro, and a brief illustration
of the technique at the official Tarzan
See also Deep
Background (1999) by Barbara Robertson in CGW.
Moment-Based Stroke Placement (1999, PDF 4.7MB )
Shiraishi. Describes an enhancement to Haeberli's 1990 work Paint
Numbers, an automatic technique for determining stroke parameters
been selected by hand in the original work.
Rendering for Realtime Applications (2003) by Daniel Sperl is a realtime
implementation in the Cg
language of painterly rendering inspiried by Meier. The site
includes a thesis
(in German, PDF 1.1MB), a paper
(in English, PDF 1MB), images, movies, source code and
an application. [new]
Sketching, Pen-and-Ink, Engraving
(and related high-contrast rendering styles)
Sketching (1990) by Paul Bourke,
transforms line drawings from a CAD system to look something like a
hand-sketched pencil drawing.
Render Frames and Influence People (1994) by Thomas
Bernhard Preim, Andreas
Raab, Jutta Schumann and David Forsey.
Early, influential paper on sketch rendering and the perceptual effects
various rendering styles on the user.
Pen-and-Ink Illustration (1994) by
Georges Winkenbach and David Salesin.
Generated Copper Plates (1994) by Wolfgang Leister, see
parametric surfaces in pen and ink (1996) by
Georges Winkenbach and David Salesin
the Effect of Non-Photorealistic Rendered Images in CAD (1996)
by Jutta Schumann, Thomas
Andreas Raab, and Stefan Laser.
Reproduction of Pen-and-ink Illustrations (1996) by
Mike Salisbury, Corin
and David Salesin.
See also this related 1998 class
project by Audrey
- Drawing Animated Lines! (1997) by Maic
Bert Freudenber. See also Animating
Frame-to-Frame Coherent Line Drawings for Illustrative Purposes
(1998) by Maic
Masuch, Lars Schumann
And see the daLi!
gallery of sketch rendering.
renderer by Antonio
see also this
and How to Draw Them (1997) by Stefan Schlechtweg
surveys three expressive styles of line drawing.
- Inklination commercial Mac
to convert from 3d models to artistic portrayals. See their galleries.
and Sketchy Animation by Cassidy Curtis.
See also this related student
project by John
Textures for Image-Based Pen-and-Ink Illustration (1997)
Mike Salisbury, Michael Wong, John F. Hughes
and David Salesin.
Approach to Visualizing Transparency in Computer-Generated Line Drawings
(1998, Postscript 2MB) by
Jörg Hamel, Stefan
Thomas Strothotte. See these
sculpting and virtual woodcut printing (1998, abstract) by Shinji
Mizuno, Minoru Okada, and
Jun-ichiro Toriwaki. Constructs models reminiscent of carved wooden
sculpture, which can be used to generate a woodcut print. The full
paper (PDF, 886KB) is available but
paid subscription to The Visual Computer.
and Re-Using Rendition Styles for Non-Photorealistic Rendering
(1999, PDF 9MB) by Jörg
Thomas Strothotte. See these pictures.
- The IRIT
system by Gershon
includes a line drawing illustration tool ("illustrt"). See
Technique Using Hardware-Based Intersections and Skeletons (1999)
by Oliver Deussen, Jörg
Stefan Schlechtweg, and Thomas
Facial Engraving (1999) by Victor Ostromoukhov,
full paper is available
(PDF 12MB). Process to transform images
into gravure style graphics.
Direction Matters: An Argument For The Use Of Principal Directions In
Drawings (2000, PDF 6.2MB) Ahna Girshick, Victoria
Interrante, Steven Haker
and Todd Lemoine.
Using lines along the first and second principal directions of
communicate surface shape. Abstract and compressed PDF files here.
Points: A Method for Computing Stipple Drawings (2000,
PDF 0.7 MB) by Oliver
Hiller, Cornelius van
Strothotte. Pen-and-ink illustrations with simulated stippling,
relaxation method based on Voronoi diagrams. ResearchIndex
Smooth Surfaces (2000) by
Aaron Hertzmann and Denis
Zorin. Line-art rendering of smooth surfaces: new techniques for
silhouettes and their visibility (a novel approach using homogeneous
coordinates and dual surfaces), automatic method for creating hatch
convey surface shape. Full paper is available
(PDF 7 MB).
Pen-and-Ink Illustration of Trees
(2000, PDF 0.6 MB) by Oliver Deussen
Strothotte describes automatic creation of pen-and-ink
trees with different drawing styles and levels of abstraction. The
is suitable for animation.
Rendering of 3D-Models (2000) by Christian Rössl
and Leif Kobbelt
presents an interactive system for generating line art drawings to
3D models that are given as triangulated surfaces. Strokes are defined
tracing streamlines of principal curvature.
- Algorithms for Sketching Terrain (2000) by Mahes
in a presentation to the Royal Institute called Art
in Scientific Visualization of Terrain Data. See also
Sketch-based Evaluation of Line Filtering Algorithms (2000,
abstract) regarding cognitive evaluation of sketches
Stylized Depiction to Enhance Legibility
Other Rendering Styles
Rendering (1998) by Bill Feth
(based on earlier work by Bruce Land).
upon the DX (Data
system, creates shaded images with limited palettes (reminiscent of
serigraphs), outlined in a pen-and-ink style.
Rendering Image Gallery (and related pages) by Daniel Teece.
See also this citation of a SIGGRAPH Sketch: 3D
painting for non-photorealistic rendering (1998).
Rendering of Fur, Grass, and Trees
(1999, PDF 748KB) by Michael A. Kowalski, Lee Markosian, J.D. Northrup, Lubomir Bourdev, Ronen Barzel, Loring S. Holden and John F. Hughes.
- EVA Expressive
Renderer (1999) by Dave
is a unique rendering framework utilizing a C++ based shading language
provides a host of 2D and non-photorealistic effects based on the
concept of a mark generator. Take a look at the amazing imagery
in the EVA gallery.
Modeling and Rendering for Computer Graphics
(2000, PhD dissertation, PDF 2.8MB) by Lee Markosian.
use techniques from traditional art and illustration to increase the
expressive power of 3D computer graphics. See also the related pages of
Modeling and Rendering project.
Rendering with Continuous Levels of Detail (2000) by Lee Markosian, Barbara J. Meier, Michael Kowalski, Loring S. Holden, J. D. Northrup
and John F. Hughes.
previous art-based rendering work to provide better frame-to-frame
coherence of the graftal elements of which the images are
The page includes an abstract, the full paper
(PDF, 0.4MB) and animated sample images.
Lit Sphere: A Model for Capturing NPR Shading from Art (2001) by Peter-Pike
J. Sloan, William
Martin, Amy Gooch
and Bruce Gooch
describes a system
for shading by example. 3D models are shaded with a spherical
color map. This map is created by interactively selecting regions of a
prototype stylized image to form pie-slice shaped sectors of the sphere
The full paper is
available (PDF 1.26 MB).
Particles for Interactive Non-Photorealistic Rendering
Derek Cornish, Andrea
Rowan and David
represents a 3D model as a system of particles, placed by a
clustering algorithm. The algorithm unifies several tasks: placing
regulating screen-space stroke density, and ensuring coherence for
The full paper is available
(PDF, 0.15 MB). ResearchIndex
Screening (1995) by Victor Ostromoukhov,
full paper is available
(PDF 3.7MB). Technique to create
halftone style images using arbitrary high contrast micro art to shape
halftone "dots." See also the ArtScreen
Effects with Half-Toning (1996) by John W. Buchanan.
interface for the interactive design of artistic screens (1998) by Nicolas Rudaz, Roger D. Hersch, and Victor Ostromoukhov,
full paper is available
(1998, Postscript 2.2MB) by Lisa Streit and John Buchanan.
Introduces a user-defined importance function which controls
nature fo the half tone, allows user selection of drawing primitive.
and Artistic Dithering (1999) by Victor Ostromoukhov,
full paper is available
Generalizing the Artistic Screening to color printing.
with Image-Based Dither Screens (1999) Oleg Veryovka and John Buchanan.
Full paper is available
(compressed Postscript 495 KB).
Rendering Using an Adaptive Halftoning Technique
(1999, Postscript 4.4MB) by Lisa Streit, Oleg Veryovka and John Buchanan.
Control of tone and texture for non-photorealistic halftones.
Halftoning of 3D Scenes
(1999, PDF 718KB) by Oleg Veryovka and John Buchanan.
Uses additional information from rendered 3D scenes to create stylized
halftones better suited to the subject matter.
Real Time Techniques
(or at least, those running at interactive rates)
Non-photorealistic Rendering (1997) by Lee Markosian, Michael A. Kowalski, Samuel J. Trychin, Lubomir Bourdev, Daniel Goldstein, and John F. Hughes.
Trades accuracy and detail for speed, uses a method for determining
lines and surfaces which is a modification of Appel's hidden-line
Surface Renderer (1998) by David Bremer and John F. Hughes
features (almost) real time non-photorealistic rendering of implicit
surfaces in a sketchy style. See also Rapid
Approximate Silhouette Rendering of Implicit Surfaces
(1998, (6.3MB Postscript))
Line Art Rendering of Freeform Surfaces (1999, 2.8MB
compressesed Postscript) by Gershon Elber.
extensive preprocessing to provide display of polynomial and rational
at interactive rates.
Technical Illustration (1999) by Bruce Gooch, Peter-Pike
J. Sloan, Amy Gooch,
Peter Shirley and
Uses non-photorealistic lighting, silhouetting, and shadowing in an
interactive environment to produce rendering of 3d models enhanced for
Painting (1999) by Aaron
is a high speed version of his techniques described in the Painterly
Processing section of this page.
Direction Line Drawings of Arbitrary 3D Surfaces (1999) by Ahna Girshick and Victoria
Uses the principal directions of curvature to guide lines over curved
surface, can be rendered in real-time.
Rendering on the GeForce 256 (1999) by Sim Dietrich. This white
written for NVIDIA developers
toon rendering techniques implemented on the GeForce 256 hardware.
Painterly Rendering (2000) by
Josh Michaels, Shanon Drone, Phil Smith, Don Schmidt. The page
includes an abstract, sample images, and source code.
Disney: Opaquing a 3D World (2000, PDF, 0.3 MB)
by Jeff Lander describes real
cartoon and sketch rendering for use in games. See the companion
of the Rendering Tree (2000, PDF, 0.3 MB).
were published in in the February and March 2000 issues of Game Developer magazine. See also
this online supplement
to source code and executable for a real-time cartoon rendering demo.
Rendering Techniques for Scalable Real-Time 3D Animation
(2000, PDF, 2.4 MB) by Adam Lake, Carl Marshall, Mark Harris and Marc Blackstein.
See also this project page: Non-Photorealistic
Rendering (Toon) and these slides
from a presentation at the Game Developers Conference 2000.
Artistic Rendering (2000, PDF 1.66 MB) by Matthew Kaplan, Bruce Gooch and Elaine Cohen.
Rendering subdivision surfaces of complex scenes, at interactive rates,
variety of artistic styles using an interactively editable particle
See also this page of sample
Hand-Drawn Animation (2000, PDF 713KB) by Ian Buck, Adam Finkelstein,
Charles Jacobs, Allison
Szeliski and Kentaro
Describes a method for generating performance-driven, hand-drawn
real-time. Does multi-way morphs to generate real-time animation that
the expressions of a user.
Rendering for Video and Interaction (2000, PDF 0.9
MB) by Aaron
Hertzmann and Ken Perlin.
Real time painting over successive frames of animation, applying paint
regions where the source video is changing. Brush strokes may be warped
between frames using optical flow.
Virtual Environments (2000) by Allison W. Klein, Wilmot Li, Misha Kazhdan, Wagner Toledo
and Thomas A. Funkhouser.
Real time walk-throughs of architectural interiors using stroke-based
textures and image based rendering methods. Full paper is available
(PDF, 12.5 MB).
(2000) by Alex Mohr,
Christopher Herrman and Steve
Dutcher modifies GLQuake to render in several real-time
This is accomplished by intercepting the OpenGL library calls. See the
and Gleicher I3D 2001 paper (below) for more details.
Interactive, Stylized Rendering (2001) by Alex Mohr and Michael Gleicher
technique for taking an existing OpenGL application and changing it to
visual stylizations. This is done "non-invasively": without modifing
application's source code. Instead the OpenGL calls are intercepted and
reinterpreted to produce stylized portrayal. The web page includes
additional figures and the full paper is available
(PDF, 0.04 MB).
(2001) by Emil Praun,
and Adam Finkelstein a
system for non-photorealistic rendering of hatching strokes over
surfaces. Preprocessing builds a tonal art map. Hardware
blends hatch images over rendered faces, varing tone while maintaining
and temporal coherence. Based on lapped textures
The full paper is available
(PDF 5.75 MB).
Stroke Textures (2001, PDF 0.6 MB) by Bert Freudenberg
per-pixel-shading graphics hardware to implement non-photorealistic
with hatching textures. There are links to slides and movies on the
3D Modeling Based on 2D Sketch Input
Toon Shaders/Plug-Ins (and related "cel-look" effects)
By Numbers: Abstract Image Representations (1990) by Paul Haeberli (full paper
(PDF 7.4 MB) but requires ACM Digital
Library access). Describes interactive "over-painting" of an image
with a shaped color-sampling brush. For an interactive sample, visit
applet. (This techniques is now available in
software such as
Instant Photo Artist and Deep
Pen-and-Ink Illustration (1994) Michael P. Salisbury Sean Anderson,
and David Salesin.
commercially available system which allows interactive post processing
rendered 3d scenes (with z-buffer data) to achieve various artistic
See this gallery.
Originally Piranesi was an academic project, see; Interactive
Rendering and Non-photorealistic Rendering: the Piranesi
system, see its Gallery
of Non-photorealistically Rendered Images, and the paper Interactive
Computer Rendering (1995) by Paul Richens and Simon Schofield
(1997) by Paul Richens.
(formerly ThinkFish LiveStyles)
A World Made of Drawings by Jonathan Cohen, John F. Hughes
and Robert Zeleznik.
Creating 3d virtual environments from hand-drawn 2D input. 3D objects
of planar strokes, reoriented for camera motion. The page includes an
abstract, the full paper
(PDF, 845KB) and a video demonstration.
Strokes and High-Level Attributes for Interactive Traditional
Drawing (2001) by Frédo
and Julie Dorsey
describes an interactive drawing system in which the user draws
abstract strokes over a reference photograph. The system has
to select various stylizations which are displayed in real time. Sample
and the full paper is
available (PDF 3.3 MB).
- WYSIWYG NPR:
Drawing Strokes Directly on 3D Models (2002) by Robert D. Kalnins,
Lee Markosian, Barbara J. Meier, Michael A. Kowalski, Joseph C. Lee, Philip L. Davidson,
Matthew Webb, John F. Hughes and Adam Finkelstein.
Allows the user to paint brush strokes directly on the surface of a 3d
Silhoutte and hatching strokes are identified. The number and placement
hatching strokes is adjusted as the model is rendered. Silhouette
a similar style are synthesized for newly exposed object edges.
The project page contains the full
(PDF 2.5MB), movies and still images.
Image Editing (2002, PDF 16MB) by William Barrett
and Alan Cheney,
uses image segmentation to identify objects in the image as
pixels. The objects can then be "scaled, stretched, bent, warped or
Arbitrary Output Variables in PhotoRealistic Renderman (1998,
Application Note #24) includes exampled of "cel-like", "painted-like",
"pen and ink" rendering styles.
Rendering of 3D Scenes (1996) by
- A shader for cartoon rendering (1997, for RenderMan) by Colin Doncaster
Rendering for Softimage by
This is one of
the more widely used toon rendering plug-ins. The site contains sample
tutorials, and other articles.
Shading Using Shading Mapping (for PowerAnimator) by Jake Morrison
Hero tests (still and animated) by Vision Scape Imaging
for a client called Ideal Entertainment.
Cel Shader 1.00 Tips and Tricks (for LightWave 3D) and a gallery at the Celshader.com site of
Jennifer Lynn Hachigian.
- CartoonReyes is a plug-in
shader for 3D Studio MAX. Here is a sample
and a demo program is available. This tutorial
review apparently refer to the same system.
Incredible Comicshop (for 3D Studio Max, see also) from Meme-X.
toon and illustration renderer plug-in for 3D Studio Max. See this gallery.
- Toon Up
cel shading for trueSpace. See this gallery.
III a 3d plug-in for Animo 3, supports Cartoon Shading
for Ray Dream 5.02 and 5.5 (and Carrara(?)) by Eric Winemiller, see
- Toony Shaders
for RenderMan ("Dang I'm tired of photorealism")
by David "Neal" McDonald,
this Page Of
Really Way Too
a stylized rendering package for the Alice
Interactive Graphics Programming Environment from CMU's Stage 3
from Toon Boom is a plug-in for
USAnimation system and exports to Maya. It is described on this brochure
(PDF 0.05 MB)
Painterly Image Processing Techniques
Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution (1993) by Brian Cabral and Leith (Casey) Leedom
(full paper is
available (PDF 1.5 MB) but requires ACM
Library access). Primarily used for visualizing 2 and 3 dimensional
vector fields, the LIC technique operates by distorting texture maps
streamlines of the vector field. It can be used to produce a
paint" version of a source image.
Painting (1997) by Paul
simulating the paintings of the aboriginal Australian.
images and video for an impressionist effect (1997) by Peter Litwinowicz (full text
format (3.5 MB), requires ACM Digital Library
access, as does this description of, and image from, Pete's animation Impressions
of San Francisco). See also this summary
by Matthew Ward.
Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes (1998) by Aaron Hertzmann, full
paper is available
(PDF 425KB). See also Painterly
Processing on an approach to process sequences of video frames.
Rendering with a Painter's Perspective by Caroline Dahllof
Generation of Non-Photorealistic Images by Steve Treavett (?)
- RE:Vision Effects
makers of the Video GoghTM
system, a simple version of their technology seen in the 1998 feature
Dreams May Come (see also the official site and this page at
Rendering of Portrait Photographs thesis research by Eric
Wong: preliminary samples of photographic portrait images processed
what looks like pencil drawing. (Note: Eric
graduated, Cornell removed his pages. When he sets up a new web site
this link will be
Impressionistic Texture Matrix Generator by Ken Musgrave and Myeong L. Lim.
GIT creates juxtaposition of color (producing tones by placing
areas of several colors close to each other) in a manner suggesting the
impressionist technique. See also Lim's GIT
page and his gallery.
See also this draft of a SIGGRAPH art sketch The Generalized
Impressionistic Texture Matrix Generator (Postscript
794KB) and a draft paper A
Statistical Approach to Color Juxtaposition.
Effects (1998) by Rob
gallery of several images processed into several styles (pencil,
watercolour, tapestry, chalk, by numbers, etching).
a Photoshop plug-in from Xaos Tools for painterly image processing. See
By Relaxation (2001) by Aaron
Hertzmann describes painterly image processing of still and moving
A user-defined energy function controls the stylization. The
image is generated by searching for a collection of brush strokes
minimal energy. This approach yields good frame to frame coherence for
images. Full paper is available in several lengths and formats
paper (PDF 17 MB).
Analogies (2001) by Aaron
Curless, and David
describes processing images by example: learning an image
one pair of before and after images, them applying the
transformation to a third image to produce a fourth. The project
page links to full paper, examples images and software.
Image Stylization by Doug
DeCarlo and Anthony
Santella contains images and links related to two related 2002
Painterly Renderings Using Eye-Tracking Data (PDF
Stylization and Abstraction of Photographs (PDF 1.8
MB). In this work, eye tracking technology is used to capture
areas of a photograph are most important. A stylized version of the
created introducing line along edges and abstracted regions of constant
obtained from segmentation. Detail is concentrated in the ares deemed
important during eye tracking.
Video Cubes (2002) by Allison W. Klein, Peter-Pike
J. Sloan, Adam
and Michael F.
Describes an approach to stylizing video which treats the video as a
volume of image data. Stylized elements, such as brush strokes, are
over time and space, then sampled as needed. The
full paper (PDF 1.5MB) is available online.
Simulation of Traditional Artistic Media
brushes (1986) by Steve
Strassmann simulates the traditional Japanese art of sumi-e
modeling the motion and bristles of the brush and the absorption of the
into the paper. There is a brief description of Strassmann's work in Lines
and How to Draw Them (1997) by Stefan Schlechtweg.
The gist of Strassmann's work was reimplemented in 1999 as a Java applet
by Golan Levin.
Watercolor by Simulating Diffusion, Pigment, and Paper Fibers
(1990) by David Small (Better version available in Postscript.)
Structural Modeling of Colored Pencil Drawings (1997, article requires ACM Digital Library access, abstract
is free) by Saeko Takagi
and Issei Fujishiro.
Simulation of Ink Behavior and Its Application to
Suibokuga-like 3D Rendering of Trees (1999, abstract) by Qing Zhang, Youetsu Sato, Jun-ya Takahashi, Kazunobu Muraoka and Norishige Chiba. See
the full citation,
and these images.
Modeling of Aristic Techniques in Colored Pencil drawing
(1999) by Saeko
Takagi, Issei Fujishiro
Masayuki Nakajima. See also the Pumpkins
project whose aim is to "capture the charm of colored pencil drawing."
Model of Blenders and Erasers in Computer-Generated Pencil
Rendering (1999) by Mario
Sousa and John
Buchanan. See also Computer-Generated
Graphite Pencil Rendering of 3D Polygonal Models (GZipped
Postscript 3MB) by the same
Physics-Based Brush Model for Painting (1999) Suguru
Masayuki Nakajima. A 3D physically based brush model that allows users
paint various strokes intuitively and directly on a computer with a
Models of Graphite Pencil Materials (1999, PDF
19.5 MB) by Mario
Sousa and John
Presents a model of graphite pencil, drawing papers, blenders and
erasers that produce realistic looking pencil marks, textures and
Decorative Mosaics (2001) by
Alejo Hausner converts input images to mosaics composed of shaped
Uses a relaxation technique to minimize the visible grout (the
between tiles) while aligning tiles with user-specified feature
The full paper is
available (PDF 1.7 MB)
- dAb: Interactive
Haptic Painting with 3D Virtual Brushes (2001) by Bill Baxter, Vincent Scheib, Ming Lin and Dinesh Manocha describes
"capturing the sight, touch, action, and feeling of painting" through
interactive use of a physically based paint brush and paint model with
feedback providing a natural interface via simulation of traditional
tools. The project page includes movies and the full paper in two
(PDF 10 MB) and low
(PDF 0.2 MB).
- Pastel-Like Rendering Considering the Properties of Pigments and
Support Medium (2002) by Kyoko Murakami
Tsuruno. "A new NPR technique that reproduces pastel drawing-like
focusing especially on the attributes of pastel pigments." This
sketch is apparently not online, but there is a PDF article of the same
this special issue.
- Automatic Generation of Pencil Drawing Using Line-Integral
(2002) by Xiaoyang
Yoshinori Nagasaka and Atsumi Imamiy. "A new technique for
generating pencil drawings from 2D gray-scale images using
- Sketchy Rendering
(2002) by John Haddon
software to "reproduce the appearance of line drawings in both pencil
along with other effects such as the bleeding of ink in water and the
application of pastel to paper." Full
text (PDF, 1.5MB) is available online.
Non-traditional perspective (for viewing and modeling)
Jets, Level Sets, & Silhouettes (1998) by Lance Williams, on
shape and shading from silhouettes.
"Outlining" Effects Using Sphere-mapping (1998) by Kenny Hoff uses OpenGL's sphere-mapping
create novel stylized shading.
- Image Precision
Edges (1999) by Ramesh
and Michael Cohen.
Includes demo code
to 3D Non-Photorealistic Rendering: Silhouettes and Outlines
(1999, PDF 171KB) by Aaron Hertzmann
Rendering (1999) by Per
H. Christensen, describes the Mental Ray contour shader.
the illustrations from the hardcopy edition of Computer Graphics
are not included on this web page.
Distance-to-Silhouette on k-Manifolds
(1999, 1.07MB Postscript) MS Thesis by Paul Brewster.
See also this related earlier work: Fixed-Width
Silhouettes on Parametric Surfaces
Silhouettes: A Hybrid Approach (2000) by J. D. Northrup
and Lee Markosian.
Describes a technique where silhouette edges are processed in image
leading to more consistent detection and subsequent rendering. The page
includes an abstract, the full paper
(PDF, 312KB) and both still and animated sample images.
- The Edge
Buffer: A Data Structure for Easy Silhouette Rendering (2000, PDF 421 KB) by John Buchanan
and Mario Sousa. The
is a technique for highlighting silhouette edges, boundary edges, and
defined edges. See also this demo program.
Stylized Motion and its Depiction
Panoramas for Cel Animation 2MB PDF (1997)
by Daniel Wood,
Craig Thayer, John Hughes
and David Salesin.
Images (1998 abstract) by Paul Rademacher
and Gary Bishop, the full
paper is available
(PDF 1.4MB) Note: the applicability of this
paper to non-photorealistic rendering is questionable, but it fit
well into this sub-category!
Framework for Non-Realistic Projections
(1998, PDF format 604K) Master's Thesis by Jon Levene.
This novel work explores non-photorealistic "perspective" projections.
Geometry (1999) by Paul
full paper is available
Deformations in Illustration (2000, PDF 2.4 MB)
by D. Martín, S. Garcia and J. C. Torres.
Deformations of objects and space contributes to the expressiveness of
illustration. Presents use of hierarchical extended non-linear
transformations as a powerful tool for obtaining such expressivity.
Rendering (2000) by Maneesh Agrawala, Denis Zorin and Tamara Munzner
describes an interactive system for creating multiprojection images
object in the scene can have it own local camera. The project page
images, movies and the full paper (PDF,
14.6 MB) in several formats.
Landscape Paintings and Panoramas (2001) Master's thesis by Nelson Siu-Hang Chu
IBMR approach for making fly-through or walk-through animations from a
large multi-perspective landscape painting or panorama. This page
links to animations, the thesis and a CGI 2001 paper by Chu and Tai: Animating
Landscape Paintings and Panorama using Multi-Perspective Modeling (PDF
Computer Graphic Effects for Traditional Cel Animation
Surveys and Overview Articles
Streamline Placement (1996) by Greg Turk
and David Banks.
"Accurate control of
streamline density is key to producing ... visualization of
vector fields. We introduce a technique that uses an energy function to
the placement of streamlines at a specified density..."
Multivalued Data from 2D Incompressible Flows Using Concepts from
Painting (1999, PDF, 1.6 MB) by R. Michael Kirby, Haralambos
and David H. Laidlaw.
Uses a combination of visual elements arranged in multiple layers to
represent multivalued data. The representations are inspired by the
strokes artists apply in layers to create an oil painting.
Bridging the Gap Between Streamlines and LIC (1999) by Vivek Verma, David Kao
and Alex Peng
compares flow visualizations using streamlines and line integral
(LIC), describes a methodology for flexibly generating flow
that span the spectrum of streamline-like to LIC-like.
Volume Rendering (1999) student project by Michael Sharps, Kim Harrington
and Evelyn Chun-Yi Wang
portrays volumetric data sets using non-photorealistic rendering to
Flow-guided Streamline Seeding Strategy (2000) by Vivek Verma, David Kao
and Alex Peng
describes a seed placement strategy for streamlines based on flow
2d vector fields. Its goal is to capture flow patterns in the vicinity
critical points in the flow field.
- Various reports from NASA's Numerical
Aerospace Simulation Systems Division on flow visualization using
Non-Photorealistic Rendering of Volume Models (2000) by David Ebert and Penny Rheingans
colors (and shades) volumetric data sets according to local operations
small voxel neighborhood. The full paper is available
(PDF 0.24 MB). ResearchIndex
Artistic Techniques and Scientific Visualization for
Renditions of Complex Information Spaces (2001) by Christopher G. Healey
describes a method for visualizing complex information spaces as
images. See also his
Nonphotorealistic Visualization project page.
Perception and Impressionist Techniques for Nonphotorealistic
Visualization of Multidimensional Data (2001) by Christopher G. Healey
this course presentation surveys a number of issues in
rendering and visual perception, then discusses their relevance to
graphics and scientific visualization through a series of descriptions,
examples, and practical applications. The page contains movies,
slides and the full paper
(PDF 4.1 MB).
Rendering: A Review of Nonphotorealistic Techniques (1995,
the late John
Lansdown and Simon
Schofield in IEEE CG&A.
available to those with access to the IEEE Digital Library in HTML
Strokes (1997) by Barbara Robertson, CGW Magazine. (Note: Pennwell, CGW's publisher, is rebuilding
site, so this article is temporarily unavailable.)
- Ten Papers on
Non-Photorealistic Rendering (1998, revised 1999) survey by Tom Janzen
- There was a focus on
non-photorealistic rendering in the
SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Newsletter (February 1999), see this introduction
by the guest editor.
Between the Pixels (1999) by
Brian Hayes (in American
Scientist) an essay about non-raster image representations.
- Lecture notes by Jonathan
for a 1999 course on Rendering
Techniques including sections on:
Non-photorealistic Rendering: Pen-and-Ink Illustration
(PDF, 2.6MB), Painterly
Rendering (PDF, 3.3MB) and Non-photorealistic
Illumination Models (PDF, 0.9MB).
to discuss computer depiction (2002) by Frédo Durand
the perspective of Art History to the analysis of stylized depiction,
proposes a classification of techniques for stylized depiction
four criteria. Project page includes the
full paper (PDF 0.3 MB) and presentation
Not yet categorized
- Conferences and conference
sessions on these topics:
- Research groups and project pages related to these topics:
- Films using these techniques:
- Teddy Ruxpin test (1985?), Digital Productions, toon
shading. Plese contact me
if you know any details.
and Lipstick (1987) Walt Disney Pictures, all toon shaded.
- The Toon Shading process was developed by Tad
Gielow and MJ Turner. Tad says: "The process involved two renders, one
for color (via Wavefront's Render) and one for plotter output (via
Wavefront plot). The plotter output render was suitable for driving a
pen plotter to create artwork that integrated into the traditional Ink
and Paint process (used on The
Great Mouse Detective, Oliver
and Company, The Little
Mermaid, and a number of shorts). We took the plotter output and
wrote a script to drive a Pixar Image
Computer to draw the lines. The lines images was then composited
over the color render."
- Burning Love (1988) short by Carlos Arquelos et al.
at PDI. Plese contact me
if you know any details.
of Hanna-Barbera (1989?), deGraf/Wahrman Inc., toon shading of
(and other locales?)
- Gas Planet
(1992) short by Eric Darnell et al. at PDI. [Quicktime
Lion King (1994): toon shading on stampeding wildebeests [fan site]
(1995) short by Cassidy
Curtis et al. at PDI.
(1997): toon shading for the Hydras
of San Francisco (1997) short by Peter Litwinowicz.
Dreams May Come (1998): painterly rendering for Chris' Paradise [official
toon shading for the Hun cavalry charge.
Prince of Egypt (1998): toon shading on props and "extras" in crowd
New Chair (1998) short by Cassidy
short by Matt and Dan O'Donnell (Cicada),
all toon shaded.
Iron Giant (1999): toon shading of the giant [official
(1999): deep canvas 3d painterly backgrounds [official site]
(1999) short by David Gainey et al. at PDI. [VFXPro
article, Quicktime clips]
- Officer Down
by Matt and Dan O'Donnell (Cicada),
Awards (2000 and 2001) cel shaded bumpers by Psyop, see video at their site from 2000
and (MPEG, 1.6MB). 2001
Jones (2001): ...will contain toon rendering, say informed
Deserter) (2001) by Olivier
Coulon Aude Danset Paolo De Lucia
and Ludovic Savonnière.
Produced at Supinfocom, won the Jury Award at SIGGRAPH 2002. See
images from the film. See also this article
(2001) by Justine Bonnard et al. stylized as an acrylic
(2002, QuickTime, 3.8MB, 60 seconds) cel shaded TV spot
by Psyop. Video is available on
of VW Commeercials, at
Ads.com and at Psyop's
gallery. Their site also has two other NPR VW spots: Sheep
(MPEG, 7.8MB) and Cones
- A Flatpack Project
by John Haddon
- Real-time interactive systems using these techniques:
used a real time "charcoal rendering" technique.
Rendering Jargon File, a glossary by Craig Gulow.
is often More: Methods for Stylistic Abstractions In 3D-Graphics
by Antonio Krüger
and Thomas Rist. See
first authors' page on Graphical
- The book Computational
Visualization: Graphics, Abstraction, and Interactivity
Thomas Strothotte et al. explores abstraction in
graphics. It discusses non-photorealistic animation, non-traditional
perspective, and other topics of interest to readers of this page.
Comics; The Invisible Art (1993) by Scott McCloud. See also this review
of the book.
Now Scott has published a companion volume: Reinventing
- 2D Paint
Animation from SGI. See also their article about The
Prince of Egypt.
- Fleeting Image Animation
"animation that integrates traditional and computer generated
- Cicada Interactive is a
independent animation production company that specializes in toon-style
Their propietary software is called Mexico.
Rendering (1995) by Peter Hall.
- Computer Drafting of Stones, Wood, Plant and Ground Materials
(1979) by Chris Yessios in Computer Graphics 13(3) SIGGRAPH '79
Informal Looking Interfaces (1997?) by Jonathan Meyer and Michael
Crumpton. See more about
The EtchaPad Project
Graphics (1999) by Ivan Herman
and David Duke,
full paper is available
(compressed Postscript 1.6 MB).
A preliminary investigation into an automatic rendering system based on
of cognitive information processing
Faces (2000, Postscript 3MB) by Zsófia Ruttkay and Han
Noot. Java-based, realtime animation of nonrealistic 2d cartoon
See also these color
(Postscript 9.7MB) from the paper, and the CharToon project
De-construction and Restoration describes a image processing
offered by Dynacs Digital
They scan old animation and "de-construct" it into line art backgrounds
overlays, allowing it to be reprocessed and recomposited.
(2000, PDF 1.6 MB) by Scott Sona Snibbe and Golan Levin
- Special Issue
Non-photorealistic Rendering (2002 v1n2) in The Journal of the Society
Art and Science. Note: I cannot display these articles, perhaps the
files do not contain font data?
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visitors since June 27, 1999
Last update: September 22, 2003