Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters

by Craig Reynolds

path following diagram

This paper presents solutions for one requirement of autonomous characters in animation and games: the ability to navigate around their world in a life-like and improvisational manner. These "steering behaviors" are largely independent of the particulars of the character's means of locomotion. Combinations of steering behaviors can be used to achieve higher level goals (For example: get from here to there while avoiding obstacles, follow this corridor, join that group of characters...) This paper divides motion behavior into three levels. It will focus on the middle level of steering behaviors, briefly describe the lower level of locomotion, and touch lightly on the higher level of goal setting and strategy.

Animation Techniques, Virtual/Interactive Environments, Games, Simulation, behavioral animation, autonomous agent, situated, embodied, reactive, vehicle, steering, path planning, path following, pursuit, evasion, obstacle avoidance, collision avoidance, flocking, group behavior, navigation, artificial life, improvisation.

Reynolds, C. W. (1999) Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters, in the proceedings of Game Developers Conference 1999 held in San Jose, California. Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, California. Pages 763-782.

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Related links:
Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters: Java demos and other related links
OpenSteer: a C++ implementation of these steering behaviors.
Cross references of citations by and to this paper at CiteSeer.

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Last update: May 4, 2003